CFexpress Cards Explained: What are Types A, B and C?

If you’ve been following the latest mirrorless camera releases, like the Canon EOS R5 and the Sony A7S III, then you’ve probably heard about CFexpress. The new memory card game in town, it’s fast becoming standard practice for new cameras to come sporting a CFExpress slot.

Big deal, you might be thinking. Why should I be excited about a memory card? Especially when you might have noticed that a CFexpress card seems to cost a bit more than a regular SD memory card.

You may also have clocked that CFexpress comes in three varieties – Types A, B and C – and wondered about the differences between them.

We’ve put this article together to provide a quick and straightforward explanation to what CFexpress is and what you need to know about it. So let’s waste no more time and crack on!

What is CFexpress?

CFexpress cards are the latest generation of what was once CompactFlash (CF card). These are high speed memory cards designed to keep up with the demands of the latest cameras in terms of both high-resolution photos and video.

CFexpress cards use an interface called PCIe 3.0, as well as NVMe 1.3 protocols. You don’t really need to know the ins and outs of how this stuff works – the bottom line is that this is the kind of tech you would previously have found in computers and solid-state drives (SSDs), which are typically much faster than SD cards.

So the main takeaway is this – CFexpress cards are fast. The maximum theoretical performance of a Type C CFexpress card (the fastest of the three speed classes) is 4,000MB/s; for context, UHS-III SD cards can theoretically manage a little over 600MB/s.

While there is an equivalent format for SD, which is called SD Express, camera manufacturers seem to have overwhelmingly plumped for CFexpress. Like the memory card version of the battle between VHS and Beta-Max, this is the format to focus on when thinking about the future.

Let’s take a closer look at the different types of CFexpress memory card on offer.

CFExpress Types A, B and C: What are the differences?

If you were to line up the three different types of CFexpress cards, the first thing you’d notice is that they are physically quite different. CFexpress Type A is the smallest, measuring 20mm (width) by 28mm (length) by 2.8mm (thickness, including label area). The Type B cards measure 38.5mm x 29.6mm x 3.8mm, while the largest Type C cards measure 54mm x 74mm x 4.8mm.

The main reason for this is because each of these types of memory card  has a different number of PCIe data transfer lanes. The CFexpress Type A card has just one lane, Type B has two and type C has four. This means the three memory card types of cards offer different transfer speeds – Type A Cards have a maximum theoretical transfer speed of 1,000MB/s, Type B cards can theoretically reach 2,000MB/s and Type C cards, as discussed, can reach transfer speeds of up to 4,000MB/s.

Of the three, photographers and videographers don’t need to concern themselves too much with Type C – these larger cards are designed more for use with computers and Solid State Drives. The types you’ll most typically find compatible with cameras are Type B – this is the type you’ll be able to use with the Canon EOS R5, Nikon Z6, Panasonic S1R and other cameras.

One of the main reasons for this is that CFexpress Type B cards are physically the same size as, and pin-for-pin identical to, another card type – XQD cards. So if a camera has an XQD slot, then usually all it needs to become CFexpress compatible is a firmware update.

Panasonic rolled out updates for their XQD cameras in 2019. Nikon have updated firmware for mirrorless Z6/7 and DSLRs D5 / D500 / D850 / D4S / D4 which all have XQD slots.

Meanwhile, the Sony A7S III, recently rolled out to big headlines, many of which focused on the fact that it takes CFexpress Type A cards. Which, you may recall, are actually the slowest type on offer. Why did Sony pick this size? Well, for one, the 1,000MB/s maximum transfer speed is still more than ample to record pristine 4K footage without any dropped frame.

But the other half of the story is that the smaller size of Type A means that a CFexpress Type A slot can also be used as an SD card slot. So users of the Sony A7S III can use its dual card slots with SD cards and CFexpress cards.  They can be used in any combination (though you can’t use both in one slot at the same time), giving a lot more flexibility.

Which cameras are CFexpress-compatible?

Here is a partial list of current cameras that offer one or more CFexpress card slots:

Which brands are making CFexpress?

When it comes to CFexpress Type B cards, you have many brands to choose from. Here’s a quick rundown of some we’d recommend:

SanDisk Extreme PRO CFexpress Type B cards

These are often bundled with the Canon EOS-1D X Mark III. They come in 128GB and 64GB varieties, and the larger card is also faster, offering a maximum read speed of 1,700MB/s, compared to 1,500MB/s on the smaller card.

Delkin Devices Type B CFexpress cards

Delkin start out at 64GB and go all the way up to a whopping 2TB. Read/write speeds increase as the capacities do, although, of course, so does the price.

Lexar Professional CFexpress cards

A trusted name in memory cards, Lexar makes reliable Professional cards with capacities ranging from 64GB to 512GB.

When it comes to Type A cards, Sony is currently the only game in town, announcing a range of CFexpress Type A cards alongside the A7S III. Offering read/write speeds of around 800MB/s and 700MB/s, the Sony CFexpress Type A TOUGH Memory Cards are, as the name implies, tough enough to stand up to the rigours of professional use. They come in 80GB and 160GB varieties.

One thing that’s also worth noting is that your current memory card reader may not be capable of reading a CFexpress card – so that’s another thing you may have to sort in order to be able to get the cards onto your computer. Sony and Lexar are two reliable brands that have started producing the CFexpress card readers. However, there are others out there, so get in touch with the Fixation sales team and we can recommend you the best deals for you.

The future?

Current CFexpress cards use the PCIe 3.0 spec, and given that the PCIe 4.0 is on the horizon, we can only expect these cards to get faster and faster. It’s up to you when it makes sense budget-wise to upgrade, however we can safely say that CFexpress is a format worth getting to know for the future of image-making.


Using Canon EF lenses with EOS R bodies

Tempted by the new Canon EOS R mirrorless cameras but worried about all your Canon EF lenses gathering dust? In this article, we’re going to be running through the adapter options for mounting EF lenses to EOS R bodies and explain how you really can get the best of both worlds.

We know that it does sound too good to be true. The idea that you might be able to bring all any old EF lenses with you when migrating to a new system, and have everything work just as it’s designed to may seem a pipe dream.

Photographers have been swapping lenses between systems for many, many years now, but it is generally accepted that this will involve a trade-off in terms of features and functionality. Things like autofocus or image stabilisation will either work less effectively than usual, or simply not work at all.

Canon’s new EOS R system, however, is a different story.

With the introduction of the full-frame mirrorless cameras such as the Canon EOS R. Canon turned many heads and signified that it was taking mirrorless seriously. This was a serious tool for serious professionals, and was clearly built and marketed as such – but many pros worried about their considerable collections of EF compatible lenses. Was Canon asking them to effectively throw these investments in the trash and start again?

Short answer: no.

Do Canon EF lenses work with EOS R camera bodies?

It was a given that Canon would produce an EF to EOS R adapter, however what’s impressive is just how comprehensive a job they’ve done of ensuring the lens and cameras can communicate.

This is not a coincidence. Canon has specifically designed the EF and RF systems to be what it calls “bilingual”. When most lenses are adapted between systems, the device is converting the electronic signals from one device to the other.

Even when the communication is sophisticated enough for the devices to understand each other thanks to the latest firmware updates, it still has an inherent latency, which causes lag and impacts on performance. On EF-EOS R adapters, the information can pass straight through.

What this means in practice is that, for the vast majority of models, everything that your EF lens can do on an EOS body, it can also do on an EOS R body when they are connected using an adapter. Indeed, now that the cameras have been around for a couple of years, photographers have been able to test them out. Some are even reporting that, anecdotally, their EF lenses seem to perform better with the Canon R, with faster autofocus.

The Canon EOS R bodies are able to store a large number of lens profiles in their internal memory, allowing them to correct known aberrations and distortions in many EF lenses, back to the 1990s. This functionality can be disabled if you don’t require it and it won’t overpower the character of an old lens if you’re going for a specific “look” over technical perfection.

The compatibility really does extend right across the range of EF lenses. You might be wondering, out of more than 150 EF lenses made by Canon, how many have functions that don’t work when they’re paired with EOS R bodies? Answer: eight.

In all cases, it’s a pretty minor thing – the Canon EF 35-80mm f/4-5.6 PZ lens from 1991 can’t use its Power Zoom when paired with EOS R, and the AF Stop button doesn’t work on seven telephoto prime lenses from the late 90s and early 00s. In all other respects, EF lenses work on EOS R bodies exactly as they were designed to work on the original DSLRs.

From left to right: EF-EOS R standard adapter, Control Ring adapter, Drop-in filter adapter.
EF-EOS R adapters

The EF-EOS R adapter range is made up of three models, each of which is a little different. Let’s take a look at the main features of each one…

Canon EF-EOS R Mount Adapter

This is the simplest, most affordable mount adapter for converting EF lenses to EOS R bodies. It allows for full communication between lens and camera, meaning all functionality like AF points and image stabilisation will work as advertised.

Lightweight and compact, the EF-EOS R mount adapter contains no optical elements, so it won’t compromise the quality of even the sharpest L-series lenses. It’s also dust- and water-resistant, so if you’re using the more rugged lenses in harsh weather conditions, the adapter won’t be a weak spot in your setup.

Canon Control Ring Mount Adapter EF-EOS R

Similarly to the standard EF-EOS R Mount Adapter, the Canon Control Ring Mount Adapter EF-EOS R converts EF lenses to EOS R bodies with no lag or optical elements to compromise quality, and is also equipped with weather sealing.

The key difference, as the name implies, is that this Canon EF adapter comes with a customisable control ring, and it’s not hard to see why many photographers say this is their favourite of the three adapters. Adding a lens control ring to the setup makes using the lens incredibly intuitive. What’s especially good about this adapter is the extent to which the control ring can be customised to the individual user’s preference – essentially it mirrors the control ring found on native RF lenses.

The control ring can be programmed to adjust all the major settings, including shutter speed, ISO, aperture, exposure compensation and white balance. The ring can be set to change values positively or negatively when it’s turned to the right or left. It can also be set to only kick in when the shutter button is half-depressed, if you’re concerned about accidentally knocking it at a crucial moment.

Canon Drop-In Filter Mount Adapter EF-EOS R

The third option of mount adapters for EF-EOS R is an interesting one, allowing for the use of a select number of drop-in filters. This is especially useful if you’re planning to shoot with a lot of larger lenses or wide-angles with a bulbous front element that doesn’t allow for the easy attachment of filters on the front.

While it doesn’t have the control ring option, this adapter does have all the functionality of the other adapters – it retains full autofocus and image stabilisation capabilities of the attached lenses, and also has the same dust- and weatherproofing.

Below are the filters you can use with this mount adapter

Canon Drop-In Variable ND Filter A: This variable ND gives you tremendous flexibility in controlling the amount of light reaching the camera, with a variable ND effect that runs from 1.5 stops all the way up to 9 stops. Use wider apertures or slower shutter speeds even in bright light conditions, and easily alter the intensity of the ND effect with the rotating wheel.

Canon Drop-In Circular Polarizing Filter A: Minimise reflections and glare with this drop-in polariser, which also has a rotating wheel that allows the user to modulate the intensity of the polarising effect. Made with high-quality glass, it ensures that the final image is still pin-sharp

Canon Drop-In CL Filter: This is a clear filter that’s used if you want to use the adapter without any of the above filter effects. Made from high-quality glass, it’s designed to effectively transmit light without any additional effects. This is useful if you want to have the option of using or not using the Drop-In filters without having the hassle of buying multiple adapters.

So the reality is that the best of both worlds truly is possible! We hope you’re encouraged to see the possibilities of shooting with EF glass and EOS R bodies, but if you have any further questions, don’t hesitate to get in touch with our team! You can email or call 020 7582 3294


Fujifilm Launch the X-Pro3

Fujifilm has pumped its latest technology into its new X-Pro3 rangefinder digital body. This latest release features higher resolution, improved AF and is the most durable Fujifilm body yet. With an unusual rear LCD design Fujifilm prove that, as ever, they are brave enough to be different with a design that pays homage to the company’s analogue photography heritage.

The camera has launched in 3 colour variations Black , Dura Black and Dura Silver  – more on the coatings below.

Coating variations for the X-Pro3 pictured left to right: Black, Dura Black and Dura Silver.
Coating variations for the X-Pro3 pictured left to right: Black, Dura Black and Dura Silver.

The Fujifilm X-Pro3 is the third generation of the X-Pro rangefinder-style digital mirrorless camera from Fujifilm. In 2012 the original Fujifilm X-Pro1 launched the X-Series interchangeable lens system. Since then the compact and portable system has been adopted by many documentary and street photographers. The new X-Pro3 has improved on its predecessor the X-Pro2 with: the latest generation sensor and processor, vastly improved AF sensitivity, a new film simulation mode, and an improved viewfinder. We dive into the details below.

4th Generation Sensor & Image Processor

The X-Trans CMOS 4 sensor is combined with the X-Processor 4 image processing engine for flagship image quality and recording performance. This technology was first seen in the Fujifilm X-T3 body and later the X-T30. The X-Pro3 has 26.1 megapixels with phase detection AF pixels built into the sensor. The processor can combine in-camera continuously shot images for HDR rendering and up to 9 frames for multiple exposures in different combination modes. The processor can handle high data-rates for 4k video recording for up to 15 minutes.

Enhanced Build and Durability

The X-Pro3 is built to withstand professional use with improved coatings, build materials and weather sealing

  • External body covers of the X-Pro3 are made from Titanium which is strong, corrosion resistant and light.
  • The X-Pro3 internal chassis is magnesium alloy for even more weight saving.
  • Surface-hardening technology Duratect protects the X-Pro3 from scratches and gives a nice metallic finish applied to Dura Black and Dura Silver versions.
  • Weather sealing applied at 70 points for enhanced moisture and dust resistance.

Improved Auto-Focus

Fujifilm have improved their AF algorithm which will enable auto-focus in lighting conditions of -6EV which is the light cast by a quarter-moon! The new firmware released with the X-Pro3 features an AF range limiter function to increase speed of AF lock-on with any lens. You can use these settings to dial in a focus preset point with any X-series lens.

The Viewfinder

The rangefinder style viewfinder gives you the option of an optical viewfinder or an electronic viewfinder. This lets you choose between a constant view of your subject or a display that represents your exposure and can play back your last shot all within a clear bright viewfinder so that you can keep your eye to the camera.

  • Optical viewfinder responds at the speed of light
  • OVF can be augmented with a smaller EVF window to display exposure simulation, enlarged focus area or pictures taken
  • EVF covers 97% of sRGB colour space for accurate colour reproduction
  • EVF boost mode increases apparent viewfinder smoothness to approx. 200fps
  • EVF delivered by a 3.69 million dot organic EL panel that delivers high contrast and fine detail.

Retro rear LCD panel

The rear LCD monitor on the X-Pro3 hinges down from the back of the camera 180 degrees. When flipped up, see the image below, the screen is closed into the camera. The LCD screen is designed for use when waist-level shooting, shooting overhead, and for accessing the menu and adjusting camera settings.
When the LCD closes, on the rear of the camera there is a small square memory LCD screen that is always on and displays shooting settings such as frames remaining and, ISO and shutter speed. Or it can display the film simulation selected with ISO and white balance. This represents the film windows used to store box-ends on classic analogue cameras to remind photographers what film they had loaded.

The Fujifilm X-Pro range and all other X series cameras are based exclusively around the APS-C sensor size. This commitment to a single sensor dimension means that unlike Canon, Nikon and Sony systems the Fujifilm X-Series lenses are much smaller and lighter as they have never been required to project an image circle that covers a full frame sensor.

Fujifilm state that the X-Pro3 in Black will become from the 28th November and the Dura Black and Dura Silver versions will be available from mid-December.

Nikon D850 video options images

Nikon D850 video options

Does this powerful DSLR have what it takes to compete for video shooters as well as stills? We dig into its feature set to take a closer look.

As the world of visual content chops and changes, many photographers are finding themselves wanting to diversify into video, to be able to offer their clients either or both services depending on their needs. As such, many are asking for a decent hybrid camera, a reliable stills workhorse that can also pick up the slack in video where needed.

Last year, Nikon responded to these demands with the magnificent D850 — a true hybrid camera that brings all the stills acumen you’d come to expect from Nikon and adds in some seriously impressive video functionality to boot.

If you’re thinking about picking up a hybrid camera to shoot stills and video, the Nikon D850 is a great place to start looking. In this article, we’ll break down its video capabilities in a little more detail to help you decide if it’s the right camera for you…

What does it shoot?

One of the headline features of the Nikon D850 is its ability to shoot 4K UHD video using the full width of its full-frame sensor — by contrast the Canon EOS 5D Mark IV, its realistic closest rival, shoots 4K video with a hefty 1.74x crop. The D850 uses intelligent pixel binning to get 4K (at 3840 x 2160) from the full width of its 8.2K 45MP sensor, and is currently the only DSLR model to shoot such video. It goes to a maximum frame rate of 30 when shooting 4K; if you’re shooting at Full HD 1080p, you can go to 60 or even 120fps for super slow-motion footage that’s still at high quality (though with a decent crop). Movies are shot in MOV or MP4 formats.

When capturing 4K, the D850 uses a bitrate of 144Mbps. This is significantly lower than the Canon 5D Mark IV, which uses a bitrate of 500Mbps. What this means is that while the D850’s footage is a little lower in quality, it eats up a lot less room on the SD card. You can record video continuously for up to 29 minutes and 59 seconds. There’s also the option to shoot 4K and 8K timelapses, although it’s worth being aware that the 8K timelapses will not compile in-camera, and will need to be assembled in post-production, and if so desired there is an exposure-smoothing function for timelapses.

The Nikon D850 doesn’t have Log profiles like its Canon and Sony rivals [link to explaining C-Log blog], however it does have a Flat Picture Control setting that’s intended to have the same effect — decrease contrast to gather as much information as possible to make the video suited for colour grading. It also has a clean HDMI output at 4:2:2 8-bit, and you can use this to record footage to an external recorder as well as the internal SD card simultaneously.


As you’d expect from a pro DSLR, the D850 is built like a tank, but it also has plenty of controls and physical features that should prove useful for video shooters. The tilting LCD screen on the rear is a touch-sensitive model, which adds a great deal to the D850’s operability. You can use the touchscreen to access all the main video settings — what’s more, there’s also the nice touch of keeping video and stills settings separate, meaning you can tweak your preferred defaults for one without affecting the other. This is especially useful for hybrid shooters.

The DSLR ergonomics of the Nikon D850 arguably give it an edge over its Sony rivals, with a good chunky handgrip that makes it easy to use. Dual card slots are also welcome, allowing you to keep shooting and shooting.

There are two things that video shooters often ask for that end up neglected on DSLRs and CSCs — sockets for both an external microphone and monitoring headphones. Thankfully, the D850 includes both.

Video features

Nikon has included plenty of useful features for video shooters in the D850, though it’s important to be aware of how and when they can be used.

Focus peaking, highlighting subjects that are currently in focus, is included for video shooting on the Nikon D850, a rarity for DSLRs and a welcome feature here. While you may or may not have found much use for it while shooting stills, in the more manual focus-oriented world of video, it’s borderline essential. It can be set to three intensity levels, and you also have the option of changing the colour if so desired. However, this feature is only available for shooting video in 1080p, not 4K, and it also cannot be used at the same time as digital image stabilisation, or when shooting slow-motion.

The D850 also has a highlight display mode that uses zebra stripes to indicate blown-out highlights, and electronic vibration reduction technology to control the effects of camera shake. Again, both of these features are only usable for Full HD recording, not 4K. The D850 also has the option of using its contrast-detect autofocus system for video, however, early reports indicate that this can be a little erratic and unreliable. In most situations, you’ll probably be best off using manual focus, with focus peaking for fine-tuning, and if this isn’t something you’re comfortable doing, you may want to look at Canon or Sony.

Final thoughts

The hybrid photographer/videographer was quite clearly on the Nikon engineers’ minds in the making of the D850, and if this describes what you are, or what you want to be, then it’s a superb option that’s well worth considering. Some of the limited video functionality, such as various features being unavailable in 4K, means that dedicated video shooters may want to look elsewhere, but if you’re going to be a jack of both trades, then the fact that the arguable best pro stills DSLR on the market now comes with professional-grade video features makes the D850 a very tempting prospect indeed.


Sony A7S II vs Sony A7 III: Which should you use for video image

Sony A7S II vs Sony A7 III: Which should you use for video?

If you’re looking at picking up a camera to shoot video as well as stills then the full-frame mirrorless Sony Alpha 7 series contains several fantastic options, and it can be difficult to know which should earn your buy.

For this blog, we’re going to take an in-depth look at two of these cameras — the Sony A7S II vs. Sony A7 III. Both have their advantages and disadvantages, and both will see you more than satisfied with your purchase should you decide to take the plunge. This isn’t about ascertaining which is the “better” camera, but simply a means by which you can assess which model is right for you.

Is everything clear? Then let’s get cracking…

Sony A7S II

It’s not too much of a stretch to call the first Sony A7S revolutionary. With its compact form factor, full-frame sensor, its whopping ISO ceiling of 409,600 that allowed it to effectively turn night into day, and the ability to record 4K video to boot, this seriously impressive machine started tempting videographers in droves.

One of the annoyances with the original A7S was that it wasn’t possible to record 4K video internally — doing so required an external recorder. The Sony A7S II fixes this as its first priority — it records glorious 4K 4:2:0 8-bit video (in XAVC S format, with no pixel binning) internally.

It can manage 4K video 8-bit 4:2:2 colour depth if hooked up to an external recorder. It also brings to the table some seriously impressive slow-mo, with the capacity to record Full HD video at 120fps at 100Mbps.

What else is there for videographers? Glad you asked. That delightful high ISO ceiling of 409,600 is present and correct, making the A7S II a formidable low-light beast. While results at these high ISO settings are not what you’d call high-quality, results throughout the range are impressive, and it’s a good option to have in seriously challenging lighting conditions.

There’s an internal 5-axis image stabilisation system that works with video too. Sony also promised better autofocus for video with this model, up to twice as fast as the previous model, although there’s no phase-detect autofocus system and the camera relies entirely on a contrast-detect system.

Videographers also have access to S-Log2 and S-Log3, Gamma settings that create a flat picture profile with maximum dynamic range. These are designed to capture as much detail as possible to give you the maximum amount to work with when colour grading in the edit (See our blog on Canon’s version, C-Log, for a more detailed explanation on how this sort of thing works).

According to Sony, S-Log can provide increases in dynamic range as high as 1300%. The camera also provides a useful Gamma Display Assist mode that allows you to view the scene with a normal contrast even while shooting in the flat profile. Elsewhere you’ve got plenty of other useful video features: Sony Picture Profiles, focus peaking, zebra patterning and a histogram.

In the centre of all this is a 12.2MP Exmor CMOS sensor with improved noise reduction algorithms, making use of its lower pixel count to provide larger photosites that help to further control noise.

Sony A7S II key advantages

– Thoroughly optimised for video

– Amazing low-light performance and noise control

Sony A7 III

As you may be able to deduce from its number, the Sony A7 III is a more recent camera than the A7S II, and accordingly it inherits features from recent star cameras like the Sony A9. While many cameras in the Sony Alpha range are quite specialised, the A7 series have typically been more like all-rounders. Accordingly, the A7 III is a balanced camera, a strong stills shooter and a capable video option.

It comes fully able to shoot 4K video using the full width of its sensor, the S-Log gamma profiles and the ability to shoot Full HD video at 120fps. Resolution is higher than that of the A7S II thanks to the 24.2MP back-illuminated sensor. This means a better high-resolution image and quality for photographers, at the cost of less noise control. Speaking of which, the A7 III has a maximum ISO ceiling of 204,800, not quite reaching the heights of the A7S II.

The A7 III and the A7S II full-frame cameras both use the same electronic viewfinder (OLED 2,360k dots, 0.78x magnification). However the A7 III benefits from its later arrival in the form of the amazing AF system inherited from the A9, with 693 phase-detection points. It also features the same 5-axis stabilisation system as the other camera, with a slight bump in performance. It has a rear LCD screen that is a little lower than that of the A7S II, but benefits from touch functionality. Even battery life has been improved — the A7 III will record for a maximum of 125 minutes; the A7S II for up to about 60.

Sony A7 III key advantages

– Newer camera with more features

– Higher resolution

– Better battery life


At the end of the day, it’s about your workflow balance, and what shooting situations you’ll find yourself in. If you’re going to be shooting mostly stills and dabbling in video, the Sony A7 III is the best buy. If your balance is likely to tip the other way and you have to choose which Sony is for video then the A7S II is the better choice given its video capabilities.

The fact that the A7 III is a newer camera also means that it benefits from technological and performance improvements. Though not in any danger of topping the impressive low-light performance of the A7S II, which is incredibly tough to argue with. There’s a reason it has been used for large-scale professional productions like the BBC’s Blue Planet.  

The important point to remember, however, is that whichever of these cameras you choose, you’re getting an excellent machine. Happy shooting!

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